Painting is a process of applying liquid pigment or any other media to a bare surface. The media is most commonly applied on the ground surface using a brush, although other implements, including knives, spoons, airbrushes, and meetings, can also be utilized. The paint is applied by applying the media to the surface in thin; even strokes called a brushstroke. When more than one stroke is required, an extended stroke of several strokes is called a roller stroke.
Historically, the painting was carried out on canvases, and the term ‘painted’ was first used in the 14th century. By the beginning of the fifteenth century, most paintings had been produced on canvases. By the seventeenth century, most painters were using oils as their prime medium. In the early part of the nineteenth century, new synthetic materials and pigments became available, allowing for greater precision and volume in painting.
There are four primary categories of paints used in an oil painting: acrylics, oils, watercolors, and stiffeners. Each group contains different types of pigments that react differently with each other. Acrylics are the most widely used in oil painting. These paints contain oil in their liquid form, which makes them more water-soluble. This means that water cannot seep through the paint while it is still in the pastels.
Oil paints, also known as “tinted,” contain pigments that change color when light is passed through them. Stiffeners are widely known as thickeners because they help to keep the stains from changing color when they dry. The term “flexible” applies to these paints as well; they do not have a very fine or even distribution of pigment in their liquid form. The term “oil painting” is sometimes used interchangeably with “oil.” Oil painting, due to its properties of being very absorbing, was primarily used for interior decoration.
Oil painters used oil paints to create paintings of the animals and plants of their times. Examples of these paintings include the well-known The Search, a painting done in oils in the Louvre, France; the Dog’s Abduction, a popular canvas art from the Baroque era; and the Paradise Lost, a famous oil painting from the Renaissance period. Watercolors and stiffeners added drying qualities to images in the Renaissance, such as the Vitruvian Man and The Madonna. They were also used to add shades to religious paintings. Stencils and other items used to decorate an image also use one or more of these mediums.
The nineteenth-century brought a new era of mass production for artwork. This art industry began with the mass production of paintings on canvas, which made them much cheaper and easier to produce. Paintbrushes had also been developed to have more delicate hair than the thirteenth-century brushes, allowing them to cover the paintings’ surfaces more thoroughly. Some painters from this century were also capable of creating portraits from photographs or film negatives.
The Art Nouveau movement of the nineteenth century emphasized colored glass in paintings and paintings of architecture and natural scenes. It brought about the abandonment of the traditional techniques used in earlier art movements. Many painters from this time used watercolor and Indian ink techniques for sketching and painting. Some artists used an approach called ragging, which involved sketching a rough shape on the canvas before putting it in color. The big break away from the traditional technique came with the growing popularity of Cubism when artists started using multiple images to form larger paintings.
Cubism is related to Fauvism, a style of painting that predated Abstract Expressionists.